Introduction to Oracle® 11g PL/SQL Programming
Private Training

Course Summary

A Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a software system that allows you to create and manage a relational database. Minimum requirements for such a system are defined by both ANSI and ISO. PL/SQL is Oracle’s Procedural Language for SQL. It is Oracle’s database programming language for creating stored procedures, functions, database triggers, and object methods. PL/SQL can be used for implementing business rules, computing algorithms, manipulating data, and for stand-alone programs. The Oracle 11g release has greatly enhanced the features and functionality of PL/SQL.

Students will write stored procedures, functions, packages, and triggers, and implement complex business rules in Oracle. Students will learn programming, management, and security issues of working with PL/SQL program units. Programming topics will include the built-in packages that come with Oracle, the creation of triggers, and stored procedure features.

Application developers and database administrators.
Course Length
3 Days
Introduction to Oracle 11g SQL Programming is required. Programming experience in a high-level language, such as COBOL, Java, or Perl is also required.


Create triggers on database tables.

Use PL/SQL’s datatypes for database and program data.

Use program structure and control flow to design and write PL/SQL programs.

Create PL/SQL stored procedures and functions.

Write robust programs that handle runtime exceptions.

Use PL/SQL’s collection datatypes.

Use cursors to work with database data.

Use bulk operations for improved performance.

Use the packages supplied with Oracle.

Design and write your own packages.

Maintain and evolve your PL/SQL programs.

Manage the security of your stored PL/SQL programs.

Detailed Outline

  1. Course Introduction
    • Course Objectives
    • Overview
    • Suggested References
  2. Triggers
    • Beyond Declarative Integrity
    • Triggers
    • Types of Triggers
    • Trigger Sequencing
    • Row-Level Triggers
    • Trigger Predicates
    • Trigger Conditions
    • Using Sequences
    • Cascading Triggers and Mutating Tables
    • Generating an Error
    • Maintaining Triggers
  3. PL/SQL Variables and Datatypes
    • Anonymous Blocks
    • Declaring Variables
    • Datatypes
    • Subtypes
    • Character Data
    • Dates and Timestamps
    • Date Intervals
    • Anchored Types
    • Assignment and Conversions
    • Selecting into a Variable
    • Returning into a Variable
  4. PL/SQL Syntax and Logic
    • Conditional Statements – IF/THEN
    • Conditional Statements – CASE
    • Comments and Labels
    • Loops
    • WHILE and FOR Loops
    • SQL in PL/SQL
    • Local Procedures and Functions
  5. Stored Procedures and Functions
    • Stored Subprograms
    • Creating a Stored Procedure
    • Procedure Calls and Parameters
    • Parameter Modes
    • Named Parameter Notation
    • Default Arguments
    • Creating a Stored Function
    • Stored Functions and SQL
    • Invoker’s Rights
  6. Exception Handling
    • Exception Handlers
    • Nesting Blocks
    • Scope and Name Resolution
    • Declaring and Raising Named Exceptions
    • User-Defined Exceptions
  7. Records and Collections
    • Record Variables
    • Using the %ROWTYPE Attribute
    • User-Defined Object Types
    • VARRAY and Nested TABLE Collections
    • Using Nested TABLEs
    • Using VARRAYs
    • Collections in Database Tables
    • Associative Array Collections
    • Collection Methods
    • Iterating Through Collections
  8. Cursors
    • Multi-Row Queries
    • Declaring and Opening Cursors
    • Fetching Rows
    • Closing Cursors
    • The Cursor FOR Loop
    • FOR UPDATE Cursors
    • Cursor Parameters
    • The Implicit (SQL) Cursor
  9. Bulk Operations
    • Bulk Binding
    • BULK COLLECT Clause
    • FORALL Statement
    • FORALL Variations
    • Bulk Returns
    • Bulk Fetching with Cursors
  10. Using Packages
    • Packages
    • Oracle-Supplied Packages
    • The DBMS_OUTPUT Package
    • The DBMS_UTILITY Package
    • The UTL_FILE Package
    • Creating Pipes with DBMS_PIPE
    • Writing to and Reading from a Pipe
    • The DBMS_METADATA Package
    • XML Packages
    • Networking Packages
    • Other Supplied Packages
  11. Creating Packages
    • Structure of a Package
    • The Package Interface and Implementation
    • Package Variables and Package State
    • Overloading Package Functions and Procedures
    • Forward Declarations
    • Strong REF CURSOR Variables
    • Weak REF CURSOR Variables
  12. Working with LOBs
    • Large Object Types
    • Oracle Directories
    • LOB Locators
    • Internal LOBs
    • LOB Storage and SECUREFILEs
    • External LOBs
    • Temporary LOBs
    • The DBMS_LOB Package
  13. Maintaining PL/SQL Code
    • Privileges for Stored Programs
    • Data Dictionary
    • PL/SQL Stored Program Compilation
    • Conditional Compilation
    • Compile-Time Warnings
    • The PL/SQL Execution Environment
    • Dependencies and Validation
    • Maintaining Stored Programs
  14. Appendix A – Dynamic SQL
    • Generating SQL at Runtime
    • Native Dynamic SQL vs. DBMS_SQL Package
    • The EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement
    • Using Bind Variables
    • Multi-row Dynamic Queries
    • Bulk Operations with Dynamic SQL
    • Using DBMS_SQL
    • DBMS_SQL Subprograms